A semiconductor is an electronic component that conducts an electricity under some specific conditions, it is the best medium to control an electrical current. Semiconductors have been manufactured purposely as single discrete devices and as integrated circuits.

Its conductance varies depending on the current or voltage applied to a control electrode, or on the intensity of irradiation by infrared, visible light, ultraviolet, or x-rays.

Through the introduction of an electric and magnetic field, through the exposure of light or heat, or by the mechanical deformation of a doped monocrystalline grid makes the semiconductor conductivity is controlled. With these conditions, semiconductors are proved to be an excellent sensor.

When there is a decreased flow of electricity with the use of the semiconductor, it is changed with the doping process. Doping process mixes a small amount of impurity into the semiconductor. The semiconductor material used in devices is doped under highly controlled conditions in a fabrication facility to control precisely the location and concentration of p- and n-type dopants. There are two types of insecurities, the n-type and the p-type.

An n-type semiconductor carries current mainly in the form of negatively-charged electrons, it has a similar manner to the conduction of current in a wire. Meanwhile, a p-type semiconductor carries a current that has a predominant electron deficiencies called holes. The hole has a positive electric charge, which is equal and opposite of the charge on an electron.

The junctions which form where n-type and p-type semiconductors join together are called p–n junctions. Semiconductor materials are useful because of their behavior, they can be manipulated easily by the addition of impurities. Here is the list of semiconductor materials:


Silicon is the most widely used material in semiconductor devices. It is a combination of low raw material cost, relatively simple processing, and a useful temperature range.


Germanium is also a widely used early semiconductor material, however, the thermal sensitivity of a germanium makes it less useful than silicon.

Gallium arsenide

Gallium arsenide is also widely used in high-speed electronic devices however during projects, it has been proven to be difficult to form large-diameter boules of this material, limiting the wafer diameter to sizes significantly smaller than silicon wafers thus making mass production of GaAs devices significantly more expensive than silicon.

Silicon carbide

Silicon carbide is a raw material for blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and could withstand very high operating temperatures and environments with the presence of significant levels of ionizing radiation.

Indium compounds

Indium compounds are also used in LEDs and solid-state laser diodes.

Metals tend to be good conductors of electricity for they contain free electrons, which moves easily between atoms. A diode is the simplest possible semiconductor device, it allows current to flow in one direction but not the other.

Semiconductors are used extensively in electronic circuits. Today, semiconductors have greatly changed the lives of the people. Semiconductors are held liable for everything that is computerized or that uses radio waves.

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