Semiconductor

A semiconductor is an electronic component that conducts an electricity under some specific conditions, it is the best medium to control an electrical current. Semiconductors have been manufactured purposely as single discrete devices and as integrated circuits.

Its conductance varies depending on the current or voltage applied to a control electrode, or on the intensity of irradiation by infrared, visible light, ultraviolet, or x-rays.

Through the introduction of an electric and magnetic field, through the exposure of light or heat, or by the mechanical deformation of a doped monocrystalline grid makes the semiconductor conductivity is controlled. With these conditions, semiconductors are proved to be an excellent sensor.

When there is a decreased flow of electricity with the use of the semiconductor, it is changed with the doping process. Doping process mixes a small amount of impurity into the semiconductor. The semiconductor material used in devices is doped under highly controlled conditions in a fabrication facility to control precisely the location and concentration of p- and n-type dopants. There are two types of insecurities, the n-type and the p-type.

An n-type semiconductor carries current mainly in the form of negatively-charged electrons, it has a similar manner to the conduction of current in a wire. Meanwhile, a p-type semiconductor carries a current that has a predominant electron deficiencies called holes. The hole has a positive electric charge, which is equal and opposite of the charge on an electron.

The junctions which form where n-type and p-type semiconductors join together are called p–n junctions. Semiconductor materials are useful because of their behavior, they can be manipulated easily by the addition of impurities. Here is the list of semiconductor materials:

Silicon

Silicon is the most widely used material in semiconductor devices. It is a combination of low raw material cost, relatively simple processing, and a useful temperature range.

Germanium

Germanium is also a widely used early semiconductor material, however, the thermal sensitivity of a germanium makes it less useful than silicon.

Gallium arsenide

Gallium arsenide is also widely used in high-speed electronic devices however during projects, it has been proven to be difficult to form large-diameter boules of this material, limiting the wafer diameter to sizes significantly smaller than silicon wafers thus making mass production of GaAs devices significantly more expensive than silicon.

Silicon carbide

Silicon carbide is a raw material for blue light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and could withstand very high operating temperatures and environments with the presence of significant levels of ionizing radiation.

Indium compounds

Indium compounds are also used in LEDs and solid-state laser diodes.

Metals tend to be good conductors of electricity for they contain free electrons, which moves easily between atoms. A diode is the simplest possible semiconductor device, it allows current to flow in one direction but not the other.

Semiconductors are used extensively in electronic circuits. Today, semiconductors have greatly changed the lives of the people. Semiconductors are held liable for everything that is computerized or that uses radio waves.

Electronic Circuits

An electronic circuit is created with a combination of individual electronic components like resistors, transistors, capacitors, inductors, and diodes, connected by conductive wires or traces through which electric current can flow. The combination of the electronic components and wires allows various simple and complex operations to be performed, the electronic circuits can amplify the signals, computations can be performed, and data can be moved from one place to another.

An electronic circuit can be categorized as an analog circuit, a digital circuit, or a mixed-signal circuit, which is a combination of an analog circuit and a digital circuit.

Digital electronics are electronics that operate on digital signals. Digital electronic circuits have electric signals that take on discrete values to represent logical and numeric values. These logical and numerical values constitute an information that is being processed. In binary encoding, one voltage represents a binary ‘1’ and another voltage represents a binary ‘0’. Digital circuits can provide both logic and memory, enabling them to perform arbitrary computational functions. It is utilized to create a general purpose computing chips and custom-designed logic circuits.

A digital circuit is typically constructed from small electronic circuits called logic gates that can be used to create combinational logic. A logic gate is generally created from one or more electrically controlled switches. An advantage of digital circuits when compared to analog circuits is that signals represented digitally can be transmitted without degradation due to noise. Storage of information is easier, it can be controlled by a software that allows new functions to be added without changing the hardware. Digital circuits are more expensive.

Analog electronics are electronic systems with a continuously variable signal. Analog describes the proportional relationship between a signal and a voltage or current that represents the signal.

Analog circuitry is built with two fundamental building blocks, the series, and parallel circuits. The basic components of analog circuits are wires, resistors, capacitors, inductors, diodes, and transistors. An analog circuit is designed to amplify, attenuate, provide isolation, distort, or modify the signal.

In a series circuit, the same current passes through a series of components. Meanwhile, in a parallel circuit, all the components are connected to the same voltage, and the current divides between the various components according to the resistance of the circuit.

There are two classifications of an analog circuit, these are the passive analog circuit and active analog circuit. A passive analog circuit consumes a no external electrical power while the active analog circuit uses an electrical power source to achieve the goal.

Meanwhile, the mixed-signals circuit is the combination of an analog circuit and a digital circuit on a single semiconductor. These are often used to convert analog signals to digital signals so that digital devices can process them. These circuits are more difficult to design and manufacture than analog-only or digital-only integrated circuits.

To test the new designs, breadboards, perfboards, and stripboards are commonly used. These boards allow the designer to make a quick change to the development of the circuit.

Consumer Electronics

Technology is being bought by people no matter how expensive it is to make life easier. Most of the electronics today are portable, wearable, and even connected to the social world.

The electronic industry has employed a large number of engineers, designers, marketers, salespeople, customer service representatives, and finance experts to continuously improve the products of consumer electronics.

Consumer electronics or home electronics are electronic devices solely made for everyday use and in private houses. It includes equipment that is used for entertainment, communication, and home-office activities.

Miniaturization has made consumer electronics smaller and lighter. Consumer electronics has become a worldwide phenomenon, it has effectively influenced the economic status of an individual and small businesses.

Early in the 20th century, the first major consumer product was introduced, the broadcast receiver. In 2010, most of the consumer electronics have become linked to digital technologies, and have largely merged with the computer industry. It has now been called as the consumerization of information technology. The first set of consumer electronic products are radio receivers, television sets, MP3 players, video recorders, DVD players, digital cameras, camera recorders, personal computers, video game consoles, telephones and mobile phones.

While the consumer electronics has paved its way to the trend of merging on other products. A major characteristic of a consumer electronic product is the trend of increasing prices, which is driven by the efficiency and automation of the manufacturer, the low labor costs, and the improvements of the semiconductor designs. Nowadays, most of the electronic devices have internet connectivity.

As each year passes, and each new generation of products introduced in the marketplace, it has become difficult to categorize the electronic products into the traditional categories, such as telecommunications, computer hardware, and consumer electronics.

Most of the electronic consumers are built in China, due to the maintenance cost, availability of materials, quality, and speed. An embedded software is being utilized in some of the electronic devices. Electronics retailing monitors the sales of the consumer electronics, some of the consumer electronics retailer offer an extended warranty on some of the electronic products.

It is not a worry when consumer electronics have malfunctioned, it can be repaired through the electronic service maintenance of the product.

Consumer electronics has a great impact on our daily lives, however, it has also an impact on our environment and health. Energy consumption has increased from the production process of the devices to the household consumption. Even when the electronic device is turned off, standby power is still consumed, however, this can be reduced by unplugging the device or using power strips with switches.

Little did we also know that it has affected our health, some of the electronic devices produce major physical health concerns. With this, neck and back pains have increased which are commonly referred as repetitive strain injuries. Electronics have affected the lifestyle of people, obesity and diabetes are commonly evident to those who tend to use electronics the most.

Thus, use electronic devices moderately and efficiently.

Resistors

Resistor is a universal component in an electronic equipment. It is a critical electronic component in every circuit.

Resistor is a passive two-terminal electrical component that applies electrical resistance as a circuit element. In electronic circuits, resistors are used to reduce current flow, adjust signal levels, to divide voltages, and establish predetermined voltages or currents of an active elements, and terminate transmission lines.

Resistors are added to circuits, for them to complement active components such as op-amps, microcontrollers, and other integrated circuits. A resistor has two terminals, one connection on each end of the resistor, its terminals extend from the wavy lines or rectangles and it connects the rest of the circuit. The electrical resistance of a resistor is measured in ohms, it is named after Georg Simon Ohm. One ohm is equivalent to 1 volt of applied energy to push a one ampere of current.

The behavior of an ideal resistor is dictated by the relationship of the voltage, current, and resistance, which specified the Ohm’s Law. Ohm’s law proposed that the voltage across a resistor is proportional to the current, where the constant of proportionality is the resistance. However, the practical resistors can have an inductance and capacitance that can affect the relationship between the voltage and current in alternating current circuits. The total resistance of resistors connected in a series is the sum of their individual resistance values.

Resistors come in one of two termination-types, the through-hole or surface mount. These resistors can be standard, static resistor, a pack of resistors, or a special variable resistor.

Through-hole resistors have a long, pliable leads that can be inserted into a breadboard or hand-soldered into a prototyping board or printed circuit board. The long leads of the resistor usually require trimming, and it is bound to take up much more space than their surface-mount counterparts. The most common through-hole resistors come in an axial package.

Surface-mount resistors are tiny blank rectangles, which are terminated on either side with even smaller, shiny, silver, conductive edges. This kind of resistor is intended to be on top of a printed circuit board, it is soldered on the printed circuit board onto its mating landing pads.

As said, resistors exist in every electronic circuit. Resistors are the key component in LEDs, it ensures that the LEDs will not explode when the power is applied. The resistor that connects to the series to the LED makes the current flowing at a safe value. The characteristic value of the LED is typical forward voltage and maximum forward voltage that is required to light up the LED.

As resistors are a voltage divider, it veers the large voltages into a smaller voltage. A pull-up resistor is utilized when a direct current is deliberately made to flow to a microcontroller into a known state.

The failure rate of resistors in a properly designed circuit is low compared to other electronic components, damage can be accumulated to the resistor when overheating occurs when the average power delivered to the resistor greatly exceeds its ability to dissipate the heat.

Electronics: An Introduction

Electronics is the science that controls the electrical energy, wherein the electrons have a fundamental role. Electronics deals with the electrical circuits that involve active electrical components that are associated with passive elements like circuits. The science of electronics is considered to be a branch of physics and electrical engineering.

It has been the greatest discovery, to utilize electrons to control machines and process information. The use of electronics has been everywhere, it is utilized to store your money, to monitor your heartbeat, to transmit the sound of your voice to another people’s phone, and it can guide planes and cars. These cannot be possible without the electrons within the atoms that carry around electrical energy to the circuits.

The circuits inside the electronic equipment are built with components that do different jobs and they are linked together by cables or printed metal connections.

Electrical was discovered earlier than electronics. Now, let us take a peek at how electronics evolved over time.

In 1874, George Johnstone Stoney, an Irish scientist proposed that electricity is built with tiny electrical charges.

In 1875, George Carey, an American scientist built a photoelectric cell that can produce an electricity when a light shines on.

In 1883, Thomas Edison, another American inventor discovered thermionic emission, wherein the electrons are given off by a heated filament.

In 1887, Heinrich Hertz, a German physicist discovered an in-depth understanding of the photoelectric effect. He found out that there is a connection between the light and electricity.

In 1894, the word ‘electron’ was coined by George Johnstone Stoney.

In 1897, J.J. Thomson, a British physicist proved that cathode rays are a negatively charged particle, that was renamed as electrons.

In 1904, John Ambrose Fleming, an English scientist discovered the Fleming valve, later called diode, and it became an indispensable component in radios.

In 1906, Lee De Forest, improved the valve made by John Fleming, the triode or audion. It has greatly improved the designs of radios. Lee De Forest was then known as the father of modern radio.

In 1947, John Bardeen, Walter Brattain, and William Shockley developed the transistor at Bell Laboratories. It revolutionized electronics and digital computers.

In 1958, Jack Kilby of Texas Instruments who worked independently, and Robert Noyce of Fairchild Semiconductor developed the integrated circuits.

In 1971, Marcian Edward Hoff and Federico Faggin managed to squeeze all the key components of a computer in a single chip. It produced the world’s first general-purpose microprocessor.

In 1987, Theodore Fulton and Gerald Dolan of Bell Laboratories developed the first single-electron transistor.

In 2008, the Hewlett-Packard researcher Stanley Williams built the first working memristor, a new kind of magnetic circuit component that worked like a resistor with a memory.

Come to think of something that does not involve electronics, who would have thought that electrons, the tiniest of all things, can have a large impact on the people’s lives? One of the areas that have great benefit with electronics is the entertainment. Moreover, electronics save our lives, hospitals are packed with electronic devices that can help maintain and monitor lives, and cars with airbags in the steering wheel that can be triggered by electronic circuits give us an extra protection.

Electronic Components

Did you know that there is two classification of electronic components?

This is the Active Electronic Components and the Passive Electronic Components.

Active electronic components can control the flow of electricity. It has the gain and directionality. An example of this are transistors, vacuum tubes, and silicon-controlled rectifiers.

Passive electronic components do not have the ability to control the current by means of another electrical signal. It does not have the gain or directionality. An example of this are capacitors, resistors, inductors, and transformers.

Here are the electronic components and their function:

Terminals and Connectors— makes the electrical connection.

Resistors— used to resist the current.

Switches— used to conduct or deduct.

Capacitors— stores electrical charge in an electrical field.

Magnetic or inductive components— uses magnetism.

Network components— uses more than one type of passive component.

Piezoelectric devices, crystals, resonators— a passive component; uses piezoelectric effect.

Semiconductors— electronic control components that do not have moving parts.

Diodes— conducts electricity in only one direction.

Transistors— semiconductor device that is capable of amplification.

Integrated circuits—micro electric computer electronic circuit incorporated into a chip or semiconductor.

QUALIFICATIONS OF A GOOD ONLINE ELECTRONICS STORE

In these modern days, people prefer buying products from online platforms due to its convenience, ease of time and flexible working hours. One can also sell or buy electronics online. There are some qualifications for a good online electronics store that one should consider as discussed below.

It should have various methods of making payments

Having different ways of payments makes it easy and stress-free for buyers. That is because various people prefer different methods of making payments and some methods are not available to some customers. It is, therefore, reasonable to incorporate all your clients by having various payment options such as PayPal, debit and credit cards. Make it possible for users to use the method they can trust.

It should have a user-friendly website by ensuring it loads fast to save time for your clients, make it easily accessible and make sure customers can shop without many complications. That is the reason why people would prefer online shopping rather than making long queues in stores. Its computer systems should also be excellent.

It should safeguard the client’s personal information

A good online electronic store should keep customer’s information safe and confidential. Protecting client’s personal information is the most important priority of the online store members.

It should have features to enable clients to compare prices and features of your products with other products

That allows customers to find the product of his or her type with ease. It also aids in selecting the right products within your budget and one that meets your requirements.

A good online electronics store should have a stylish design that makes the stores attractive and enables them to incorporate high-quality content with appealing images, graphics and multimedia files. That will attract more customers to the site.

It has affordable prices for its products

Affordable and beneficial deals are usually appealing and attractive to customers since products are available directly from the manufacturer or seller without involving intermediaries. That should, therefore, be an essential qualification of a good online electronic store.

It provides different varieties of products they sell. When someone is shopping online, they need varieties to make informed decisions as they buy, therefore an online electronic store should have varieties of all their products. That also enables customers to obtain only what they require, not buying things due to lack of another choice. The sorts of electronics should also be the accepted products, not rejects.

It should have a platform for customers to provide reviews Customer reviews can help make an informed decision about a particular store. Good testimonials come from satisfied clients, hence the importance of doing reviews.

It provides offers and deals to its clients

That mostly happens during festive seasons such as Christmas. A good online electronic store should provide such deals at least once a year.

Following these considerations when selling or buying using an online electronic store cannot disappoint.

5 Surefire Tips For Cleaning Electronic Components

In this modern era of technological advancement, we have got a plethora of electronic gadgets at our disposal which has made our lifestyle significantly easier and interesting. However, it is imperative to clean these electronic components so that they remain in top condition. It is possible for them to get bogged down because of dust and grime which will eventually cause a significant problem by becoming overheated. These issues might range from sluggish operation to even complete malfunctioning. It is not possible to fix a circuit board which has been burnt out. One must take enough measures to avoid these sorts of problems. One such technique to allow your electronics components function in the best possible way will be to clean them on a regular basis. The time and trouble for cleansing are going to vary from device to device which will definitely help increase their longevity and in the subsequent paragraphs, we have mentioned 5 Tips on How to Clean Electronic Parts.

1. Make it a point to unplug the gadget for the main power source and this might even entail the removal of the battery. By de-energizing the component it will be possible to clean it rather easily. Unplugging from the power source will help to safeguard the equipment and, above all, also you.
2. Disassembling the equipment will help a lot in facilitating the cleaning procedure. However, remember to go through the specifications as mentioned by the manufacturer which will help to avoid any damage to the equipment. Also, it will be possible to remove any dust or debris from the circuit board by blowing compressed air on the electronic part.
3. After dipping a cotton swab in a solution of isopropyl alcohol, instead of soaking it, run it over the circuit board. But take care not to get any cotton stick to any wiring or any other electronic part. This method has to be performed till the entire circuit Court has been thoroughly cleaned.
4. Apply a non-static piece of clothing to clean the components of that particular gadget. You may also use some alcohol on the cloth while cleaning in this way. The non-static cloth will help to avoid any static charge caused by short-circuiting.
5. The ultimate step will be to allow your system to become completely dry before energizing it once again. This process should not consume more than five minutes, and the drying will become faster in case you apply a higher percentage of isopropyl alcohol on the nonstatic piece of clothing.